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Brasilia officially became Brazil´s capital on April, 1960. Four years before, it didn´t even exist. At that time, President Juscelino Kubitschek commisioned Lucio Costa (urban planner), Oscar Niemeyer (architect) and Burle Marx (landscape architect) to build a new city from scratch.

It was made a WHS because it is one of the major examples of the 20th century´s modern movement in architecture and urban planning. Lucio Costa drew the Plano Piloto, in which Brasilia is shaped like an airplane (or a bird). There´s a wide north-south axis for transportation. Around this are the residential zones, divided into blocks, each with its own churches, shops, schools etc.
At the tip of the east-west axis there are formidable government buildings, like the Congress and the Itamaraty Palace.

The city was planned for 500.000 to 700.000 people. More would have to live in sattelite cities, which are abundant now because of Brasilia´s 2 million population.

Visit October 2004

This is a strange city, that cannot be compared to any other in Brazil (or the rest of the world). To be honest: the first thing that came to my mind was that they dropped an atomic bomb here. It must have happened in the early 1970´s, in a Bucharest-like city. The people are slowly starting to return now, occasionally you see one or two moving about the fields.

To see some of the architecture, I joined a 3-hour bustour. We visited 9 places of interest. The most impressive I found the Sanctuario Dom Bosco. When you step inside this church, you´re surrounded by a blue light shining through the many glass-tiled windows.

The other buildings are a lot more sober. Some beautiful in their simplicity (like the Church of Our Lady of Fatima), others quite depressing (like the highrise buildings that were built for the ministries).


Thomas Buechler (Switzerland):
Where else in the world you have the executive, legislative and judiciary powers holding office on the same square? It's all happening on the Praca dos tres Poderes in the Brazilian capital. A few meters away is the Itamarati, a marvellous modern building that houses the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.The purpose-built federal capital of Brazil succeeded Rio de Janeiro in 1960, and was laid out by Professor Lucio Costa in the shape of an airplane, with many buildings designed by Brazil's most famous architect, Oscar Niemeyer. All planned, all organized.For instance on Esplanada dos Ministerios, you can find 19 tall ministry buildings where people go to work. The appartment buildings where they live were planned just next door. But the most impressive sites for me were 2 churches: The Sanctuary of Dom Bosco with its multi blue stained glass windows ranging from shades in light blue, to indigo, to marine blue and depending on the day light, it can be an extraordinary atmosphere inside this church; the other one is the Cathedral Metropolitana, a hyperboloid structure,constructed from 16 concrete colums, weighting 90 tons each.Inside you can see 3 aluminium angels suspended from the ceiling; the altar was donated by Pope Paul VI.The capital has been declared a World Heritage site in 1987. Brasilia has very little fancy restaurants, if you imagine that all the embassies are located here. Bar Beirute is a funny place. Middle East cuisine with Brazilian entertainment, its a GLS location and the beer is icecold! On our last day in Brasilia we were lucky: walking towards the Nacional hotel with our luggage, a local guy was hiding in the bushes along the sidewalk.But a police patrol was nearby, and they jumped over in full combat gear, arresting the suspect within seconds. I think the capital is a safe place, as the police knows very well what's going on.
Date posted: February 2015
Jorge Sanchez (Spain):
Brasilia, the most modern capital of the world, seemed a city of science fiction. It was designed as a plane by Oscar Niemeyer, in which nose there was an artificial lake and government buildings, plus an underground church with three large stone angels hanging with cables.
In each wing there were located embassies and a hotel complex. And in the tail was the rodoviaria (bus station).
It was not adequate city to visit on foot; everywhere there were great blocks, separated by vast distances.
Thanks to my recent job cleaning pools in Mato GrossoI had some money and I felt very euphoric, therefore I invited to cream sodas and pastries to the homeless people that I found resting in a park.
I had several addresses of people in Brasilia, but I chose to join the homeless, staying with them in a hostel called Casa da Sopa, for free. In local buses we never paid. It was sufficient to say to the driver:
- Look, I'm a homeless.
And the driver admitted you free of charge.
After several days exploring Brasilia I traveled by train to São Paulo.
Date posted: July 2013
Lisbeth Holt (U.S.A.):
Before I visited Brasilia,
I knew next to nothing about it.
I just knew it was the new capital of Brazil
Built somewhere in the middle of the country.
That its plan and architecture was eclectic...
But no more than that.
I had never heard of Juscelino Kubitschek,
The "bossa nova" president
Under whose tutelage the city was established;
Nor of Lucio Costa, the brilliant city planner,
Nor of the heroic artists, nor of the tireless workers.
Yes, Oscar Niemeyer I'd heard mentioned
But I had no knowledge really of what greatness
He's accomplished; not even that he's Brazilian!
...I accepted an invitation suddenly from out of the blue,
An invitation to visit Brasilia.
And now I know about Brasilia,
Not nearly enough but enough to know
That it's a place where you feel alive! Impassioned!
By its innovative ways, its buildings of epic grandeur;
By the ebullient energy and humanistic spirit
Of the beautiful brasilienses: gracious, delightful, spontaneous!
The sky is sapphire blue in Brasilia, the earth carnelian red;
Bold buildings soar in the brightest of whites!
Not shy pastels, but primary colors, making a statement!
The shapes, the curves, the four-leaf clover roads, the bridges of fantasy,
The pyramidal, the concave and convex, the rounded U.F.O.-like buildings,
The Cathedral like hands in prayer holding the miracle within.
I know about Brasilia now.
I know where it gleams like a dream of a mythical city.
I can tell you how to get there.
You'll be glad you came.
Date posted: May 2010
Graeme Ramshaw ():
Brasilia is strange place. A planned city, created from nothing when the Brazilian government decided to move the capital inland, in an attempt to develop the interior of the country, Brasilia is in the shape of an airplane and most buildings downtown are built in a modernist style (read white and somewhat spartan looking). That said, some of the architecture and planning schemes are fascinating and after spending several days in Rio beforehand, Brasilia is like an oasis of calm. The extreme planning of the city, however, prevents it from feeling particularly "lived in" and the great distances between buildings (again based on modernist conception of cities) makes it difficult to get around quickly.

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Site info

Country: Brazil
Inscribed: 1987
Cultural Heritage
Criteria:  (1) (4)
Category: Human activity, Urban planning

Site history:
1987 Inscribed
Reasons for inscription

Site links

Official website:

In the news:
» Brazil's retro capital hits middle age (09-05-2014).
» Oscar Niemeyer, Brasilia's architect, dies at 104 (05-12-2012).
» Preservationists say they are fighting to protect Brasilia's signature skyline designed by legendary architect Oscar Niemeyer - from Oscar Niemeyer himself. (31-01-2009).

Related links:
» All about Brasilia.
» Some research on Brasilia.

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Architectural design competitions . Designed by famous architects . Hyperboloid Structure . Ideal City . International style . Modern Urban Planning . Reinforced Concrete .
Dovecotes . Sites of Parliament .
Human Activity
Geoglyphs .
Individual People
Oscar Niemeyer .
Religion and Belief
Cathedrals .
Built in the 20th century .
Located in a Capital City . Registered when architect was alive .
WHS on Other Lists
Pritzker Architecture Prize .
World Heritage Process
Controversial at inscription .

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