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World Heritage Site

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Bahla Fort

Bahla Fort
Photo provided by Philipp Peterer (2011)

Bahla Fort comprises the ruins of a typical Omani military fortress, built by the local Banu Nabhan tribe that ruled between the mid-12th and 15th centuries.

It is one of four historic fortresses situated at the foot of the Djebel Akhdar highlands - the others being Rustaq, Nizwa and Izki.

Its walls and towers were built in adobe, on a sandstone base. To the southwest is the Friday Mosque with a 14th-century sculpted mihrab.

The fort was put on the Danger list a year after inscription, because it was dilapidated and decaying rapidly after each rainy season.

Map of Bahla Fort


  • Cultural

Community Reviews

Frederik Dawson Netherlands / USA 13.03.14

Bahla Fort by Frederik Dawson

After two decades of restoration, the biggest fortress in Oman, Bahla Fort is finally opened its door to welcome all visitors to see its impressive heritage and discover its outstanding value as a World Heritage Site. Actually I never expected to have a chance to visit the fort because all information especially many recent reviews in Tripadvisor mentioned that opening time was only Friday and Saturday, as I visited Bahla on Tuesday so I initially planned just to see the exterior and the nearby souq and visit Jabrin Fort instead. After had a really good time at Jabrin Fort, a former residence of powerful imam, admiring its very beautiful interior, I continued my trip to Bahla Fort and surprisingly saw a group of tourists entered the fort’s gate, so I went inside the fort to ask gatekeeper and found out that the fort was opened, so I immediately decided to change my plan and happily explored the fort.

Since the fort was built on the hill with formidable size, the fort really stunned me, but when I saw the entrance gate, I was surprised to find that the gate was quite small. After enter the first gate was the outer courtyard with thick and hall wall protecting by two round towers, a very classic defense design. I entered the second gate and found a tunnel liked grand hall covered with white plaster with many alcoves that maybe used as guard shelters or small bazaar in the old time but today a ticket kiosk. After the hall, I was at the central courtyard that has a small mosque and the meeting hall called As-Sabla surrounded by large three adobe buildings namely Bait al-Jabel, Baith al Qued and Bait al Hadith. The layout of these three houses was very confusing like a labyrinth and seemed to be connected with each other forming a very big residence complex for the fort owner. Most of the rooms in the complex were empty, few rooms had fine painted ceiling, but everything seem to be newly rebuilt and a little bit fake. When I entered Baith al-Hadith I found some remaining original part of the fort, really old and dark mud brick walls and impressive columns. The atmosphere in the room was something that could not be explained as it was really cold and contrast to other part of the fort together with rumor that the fort was haunted, I felt that “I’d better get going” Then I entered into the citadel or Qasaba which was the biggest building inside the fort. The citadel was the oldest part of the fort and with three towers and very high wall separating itself from the rest of the fort. Inside the citadel was a complex of small rooms, stairs, and fortification systems. The citadel also looked more original than other part of the fort with its partial ruin state. One of the strangest of the citadel was one side of its walls had been left unfinished in the restoration, some Omani believed that demon inside the fort did some magic that even UNESCO could not restore it! Then I walked to the empty and plain stable and other part of fort’s high wall to see nice view of Bahla Oasis. Apart from the fort, there also was a big mosque and groups of ruining adobe houses beside the fort, the mosque was closed and I was not sure with the state of preservation of those crumbling houses so I decided to skip them. Then I visit the souq, there was nothing special with this small souq except the magic tree which locals believed that if touching it will eventually have a suffering death! Then I drove around the city to see oasis, beautiful wadi and the famous city wall.

When I visited Bahla Fort, I understood that only Bahla Fort was a World Heritage Site, but after read UNESCO document, I found that actually ICOMOS asked Omani Government to chose between the whole Bahla Oasis to be inscribed or only Bahla Fort but have to include other forts in Muscat and Rostaq as a serial nomination, and Oman preferred the first choice. The decision was quite interesting and why. At first I thought about tourism promotion but in that time, 1987, World Heritage Site was not considered a tourist magnet, so maybe Oman only wanted to inscribe Bahla Fort which was in urgent need of preservation while other forts were in better state and no need UNESCO assistance and in accordance with a true objection of the convention, but this was my personal opinion. As I already mentioned the fort was really empty, so there was nothing much to see except the fortification design which was very impressive. If in the future Bahla fort has more exhibitions like in Jabrin Fort, Bahla surely will become the most interesting fort to visit in Oman, and possibly the best World Heritage Site that Oman present to the world.

John booth New Zealand 11.09.11

Bahla Fort by john booth

Whilst the restoration work still continues, I am glad to say much progress has been made, and the day will come when the last of the scaffolding is removed. It was interesing to see bricks of clay and straw being baked in the sun for use on the reconstruction.

From the bus stop outside the fort buses stop on their way to Nizwa, Salalah and Muscat.

We also visited the nearby forts at Jabreen and Nizwa, where restoration has been completed. Although smaller than Bahla, they are of equal interest.

Rob Wilson UK/Oman 17.12.05

As a new resident of the nearby town of Nizwa, I was really looking forward to seeing Bahla fort. The previous poster is absolutely correct in his assessment, although I must add that restoration of the fort is necessary. If they attempted to preserve the fort in its semi-ruined condition (which I would normally prefer) it would soon be nothing but a pile of dust (as the fort is made of mud and any rain has a devastating effect on its integrity). Therefore, it is better to have a restored fort rather than nothing at all.

Solivagant UK

Bahla Fort by Solivagant

The forts of Oman are undoubtedly one of that country’s “glories”.

At Muscat airport, or at one of the forts themselves, you should try to get hold of a little brochure (“Visit Oman’s Forts and Castles”) produced by the Directorate General of Tourism which lists 22 different forts. (Alternatively have a look at

There are few hill tops which are not surmounted by a watch tower and few towns which don’t possess a castle or fort in some state of disrepair or renovation! In fact it sometimes seems that Omanis are obsessed by battlements and crenulations as they are used at every opportunity for town entrances and newer buildings and even to decorate the top of the plastic water tanks which sit on the roofs of Omani houses!

Oman therefore had many castles and forts to choose from for its WHS recommendations, but only 1, Bahla, has made it to the full list. Another 2, Rostaq and al-Hazm, are on the tentative list. So why has Bahla been chosen? The above web site isn’t very informative merely stating “Due to the importance of the fort UNESCO listed it in 1988 AD”

The fort is certainly very large – the largest we saw. It is also “conveniently placed” for tourism standing a few miles outside Nizwa, one of Oman’s most attractive cities. - which itself has a fine fort and, one suspects, that its potential in Omani tourism played a large part in its selection.

A difficulty with Bahla is that it appears to be undergoing almost complete reconstruction, and has been doing so for many years. My Lonely Planet of 1993 mentions it and when we visited it in Feb 2005 it is still closed for reconstruction. As the photo shows, parts of it are hidden by enormous scaffolding.

So my recommendation is, by all means pass it and walk round it but plan to visit some other forts both to see them without the scaffolding and to get inside – if they are open that is! It became a bit of a joke that whatever time you arrive to look round an Omani fort it will be closed!

It is perhaps only necessary to visit inside 1 fort since they all seem to have similar sets of rooms (to the non-specialist that is). Nizwa and nearby Jabrin are convenient if you are in the mountains and Nakhal and Rustaq if you are staying in Muscat. There is a standard entrance price of 500 baisa (.5 Rial) For the rest just take in the outside wherever you see one!

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Site Info

Full name: Bahla Fort

Unesco ID: 433

Inscribed: 1987

Type: Cultural

Criteria: 4  

Link: By Name By ID

Site History

  • 2004 - Removed from Danger list 
  • 1988 - In Danger Degradation of the structures
  • 1987 - Inscribed 


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  • Bahla Fort