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South Korea World Heritage

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Author winterkjm
#226 | Posted: 6 Mar 2017 03:25 | Edited by: winterkjm 
"In terms of the main core tasks, the Baekje World Heritage Center will carry out 14 heritage sites of Gongju, Buyeo and Iksan for the implementation of the UNESCO recommendation and extension of the heritage value, and 19 relics for the long term. To this end, the Baekje World Heritage Center will apply for a temporary listing to the Cultural Heritage Administration in July of this year, and will cooperate with the city of Seoul to create a complete Baekje Historical Remains Area including the remains of Hanseong Baekje from this stage." If I understand this right, an [Extension] Baekje nomination will emerge this Summer/Fall. There will be 14 total components in Gongju, Buyeo, and Iksan including the current 8 serial properties. In other words, 6 additional components would be added. Once you include the Hanseong Baekje sites in Seoul, the ultimate total would be 19 components.[/i]

+ 6 additional components planned (Gongju, Buyeo, Iksan)
+ 5 components planned (Seoul)

Seoul 4/5
- Bangi-dong Ancient Tombs
- Seokchon-dong Ancient Tombs
- Mongchon Earthen Fortress
- Pungnap Earthen Fortress

Iksan 2/2
- Twin Tombs (Iksan Ssangneung)
- Ancient Tombs in Ipjeom-ri

Buyeo ?/5
- Garimseong Fortress?
- Cheongmasanseong Fortress?
- Ancient Tombs in Neungangol?
- Archaeological Site in Hwajisan Mountain?
- Jeungsanseong Fortress?

Gongju ?/1
- Archaeological Site in Jeongjisan Mountain

While I think its not a bad idea to extend the Baekje WHS, in particular the 2 sites in Iksan and the 4 sites in Seoul, I am not sure how much additional sites beyond this would add to the OUV? Garimseong & Cheongmasanseong, both ruined ancient fortresses, looks somewhat interesting, but the remaining sites hold little additional value in my view.

I like the symmetry of 4 components in Seoul and Iksan respectively, 6 components in Buyeo, and Gongju would remain with 2, for a total of 16 serial components. Essentially the Baekje Historic Areas WHS would double in size, and with the addition of Seoul would represent the full scope of Baekje civilization.

Author winterkjm
#227 | Posted: 22 Mar 2017 22:00 | Edited by: winterkjm 
I believe the Advisory Body recommendations of Korea's 4 failed nominations are as such (below). Korea's policy is to withdraw any nomination that receives a Deferral/Not Inscribe from the Advisory body. All 4 nomination dossiers that earned such a recommendation were withdrawn. According to some articles, Hanyangdoseong is Korea's first "Not Inscribe", from what I can find this is accurate, no?

1996 Mt. Soraksan Nature Reserve Deferral
2009 Korean Cretaceous Dinosaur Coast Deferral
2016 Seowon, Confucian Academies of Korea Deferral
2017 Hanyangdoseong, the Seoul City Wall Not Inscribe

Two Years in a row, in which the comparative analysis was viewed as weak. With 3 more nominations in the immediate pipeline (2018, 2019), Korea is facing some potential challenges. One, the serial Buddhist Temple nomination will need a great comparative analysis to achieve a positive recommendation. Two, both nominations in 2019 are complex serial nominations that ALSO require an excellent comparative analysis! I believe the Seowon nomination will ultimately be inscribed, but the recommendation for Hanyangdoseong surprised me a bit. Perhaps, nfmungard is right, Seoul City Wall may not demonstrate OUV particularly in relation to the large amount of fortresses already inscribed. Despite my fondness for the site, there is an argument to be made Namhansanseong and Hwaseong are enough to represent individual Korean fortifications.

Other Korean fortifications included in serial WHS: 5
- Myeonghwal Mountain Fortress (Gyeongju Historic Areas)
- Gongsanseong Fortress (Baekje Historic Areas)
- Busosanseong Fortress (Baekje Historic Areas)
- Naseong City Wall (Baekje Historic Areas)
- Kaesong Walls (Historic Monuments and Sites in Kaesong)

So in fact, 7 fortifications are currently inscribed on the Korean Peninsula! In Korea's tentative list, a serial nomination of 7 additional fortresses is waiting for its potential candidacy. Naganeupseong which is a fortified village, is in the early stages of preparing a dossier and as we've just seen in the media, Seoul City Wall will try again in 2020!

Author Solivagant
#228 | Posted: 22 Mar 2017 23:11 
With 3 more nominations in the immediate pipeline (2018, 2019), Korea is facing some potential challenges. One, the serial Buddhist Temple nomination will need a great comparative analysis to achieve a positive recommendation.

Korea is bringing in more help on this matter!!
We have just returned from a trip there and visited Magoksa.
The bridge over the river there is festooned with decorative lights bearing the words - "We pray for Traditional Buddhist Mountain Temples of Korea to be inscribed on the 2018 World Heritage List"!!!

Author clyde
#229 | Posted: 23 Mar 2017 02:27 
Thanks for the info. I'm planning to visit the tidal flats and mountain temple in Suncheon which are the most likely potential inscriptions for S Korea by 2019.

Author Solivagant
#230 | Posted: 23 Mar 2017 16:14 | Edited by: Solivagant 
S Korea (T)WHS by Rent-a-Car

We have just returned from a successful 10 day (plus flight days) tour of S Korea's (T)WHS which included 6 days with rent-a-car, taking in 10 WHS and 12 TWHS. Korean (T)WHS have been well reviewed on this site and I won't be describing our individual visits unless I feel I have something specific to add but, hopefully, this overview of our entire trip will provide some useful information for anyone thinking of trying a similar self drive visit.

Our general conclusions are that
a. It is perfectly doable even for someone with absolutely NO knowledge of Hangul script and indeed provided an interesting "experience".
b. Despite the excellent Korean Bus/train systems, a car avoids the logistical hassles and restrictions of public transport and gives that extra degree of "freedom"! It is of course more expensive but, split 2 ways, those extra costs are easily recouped in reduced overall travel/trip time and, in terms of our personal travel preferences, were well worth it.

In 1998 we had visited the South Korean mainland for just 7 days (Jeju has since been visited separately) and, this time our WHS-related travel objectives were to visit
a. at least 1 location for each of our 5 missing sites (Joseon, Namhansanseong, Baekje, Dolmen, Haeinsa,)
b. aspects or locations of some of the previously visited WHS which we felt we had "missed out" on (Huwon, Hahoe, Seokguram)
c. at least 1 location of as many of the "active" TWHS sites as we could. (Seoul Wall, Mountain Temples, Gaya Tumuli, Confucian Academies, Tidal Flats)
d. other unvisited T List sites as were "reasonably convenient"
e. 2 previously visited "Highlight" WHS (Jongmyo and Gyeongju)

We visited those inside the Seoul conurbation by public transport, but this still left 6 WHS and 11 TWHS to be visited using the car on a reasonably direct "natural" circuit covering 1615kms. (The large number of Korea's (T)WHS with multiple locations meant that it was relatively easy to find a location for each of them somewhere close to our general route!). See our route/(T)WHS/kms p d here - . The only mainland WHS which we left out was Suwon – we had seen enough "Fortress Walls" and couldn't be bothered with a revisit even though there was time available in the schedule! The average rate of 3 (T)WHS pd proved reasonably easy to achieve. Our standard average day was around 9 am to 7pm (Korean Hotels only start breakfast at 8 am and it is our most "important" meal so we try not to miss it – even if some Korean hotels provided pretty minimal fare!) The average daily distance of around 250 kms took approx 4 hrs driving on a mixture of motorway and normal roads, leaving approx 6 hours pd for sightseeing = 3 sites per day at an average of 2 hours each. Some of course took longer and some took less but we rarely felt pressured and were always able to take in the excellent museums as well as the sites themselves.

Continued in next post

Author Solivagant
#231 | Posted: 23 Mar 2017 16:17 | Edited by: Solivagant 
Continued from previous post

Some experiences and tips –
a. We rented the car from the Seoul Express Bus Terminal (Lotte/Hertz). With days in Seoul at both start and finish there was no benefit in hiring from Incheon where rates are higher anyway. But there are literally 100s of rent-a car offices in Seoul so we wanted one which was ok to reach/depart from by metro, operated 24/7, faced "south" (which was our direction of travel) and wasn't too far "out of town". In fact getting out of Seoul at 10 am on a weekday and back at 7pm on a Sunday wasn't difficult as the terminal leads straight onto Highway 1.
b. Driving style in S Korea is reasonably civilised and speeds are low by the standards of many countries (80kph on most roads, 100/110 on Expressways and 40 in towns/villages with lots of 30kph areas for schools (and even "Silver zones" for oldies!). Speed cameras are EVERYWHERE (We will have to see if we "escaped"!)
c. The big issue for most people will be "can I find my way round?" When driving you have very little time to decide and it often isn't easy to stop and ask or go back if you have made a mistake! There is a big premium on getting it right first time! We don't normally pay the exorbitant extras charged by rent-a-car companies for Sat Nav and, in recent years, have used Navmii with downloaded maps (We don't get a SIM for countries we are visiting so have to operate "off line"). Our Korean rent-a-car came with Sat Nav as standard and I think that may well be universal. We also had our trusty Navmii. Neither was entirely satisfactory and we often used both at the same time! Variations in the spelling of Korean place names made searches for destinations difficult, many place names are repeated across the country in different provinces etc etc. Navmii showed many places only in Hangul and the in-car sat nav seemed more interested in providing a list of (paying?!) restaurants and auto repair etc companies than in a local site. Navmii's "point" selection feature was particularly useful - as preparation I had downloaded prints of Google maps for (T)WHS and pre-booked hotels and, using these, could zoom in and pin point a location on Navmii even if it was unmarked or in Hangul – a press of the finger on the screen and it was recorded as "destination" even if it had no "name"! Hotels and (T)WHS can be searched out beforehand and set as "favourites" to avoid time wasting on the road.
d. The long and short of it was that, once we had overcome the "psychological block" associated with Hangul signage, we really had no more difficulty driving than in any "unknown" country we have experienced. On 2 occasions our hotel was located within a complex of small streets with no obvious entry and we had to stop at a nearby shop which kindly phoned the hotel for us so that they could send someone out to shepherd the car through the system of 1 way and closed lanes. (All our hotels outside Seoul had free parking even in the "budget" range). The locations of all (T)WHS were well marked with brown bilingual signs from a few kms out (Though these sometimes rather annoyingly, "degraded" to Hangul versions only as one got closer!). Highway direction signs were adequately bilingual and, although there were many others which we didn't understand we just had to assume that we didn't need to! The rush hours, even in provincial towns, were pretty busy and sometimes the Sat nav instructions at "spaghetti junctions" were a bit late or unclear – but no more than in other countries. We only made one "mistake"(In Jeonju) taking a wrong exit which took around 30 minutes to recover and was made worse by highway closures which prevented a simple "exit, cross over and return" strategy. Both the in-car sat nav and Navmii were often out of date (Korea is building a lot of new roads) and showed us "floating" in mid country- even with these aids you need to stay "aware"!
e. An amazing aspect of visiting Korean (T)WHS is the high percentage of them which have a superb adjacent modern museum. We found that most of these provided free, spacious (and largely empty!) parking so, that frequent bugbear of "WHS travelling" with a car - how to park - was largely non existent. This wasn't true of a few of the commercialised "Honey pot" sites – Haeinsa, Hahoe and Suncheon Tidal Flats for instance – but parking charges there weren't exorbitant and even on a busy Sunday at Hahoe there was plenty of room. Only once – the tomb of King Suro in Gimhae - did we give up as it was situated in a rather busy area of town. But we were short of time and had seen other tumuli (and the Museum!) from the site anyway and didn't feel we needed yet another one!
f. It might be worth mentioning that most sites in Korea are free to those aged over 64 – so those of you who haven't yet reached that august age have something to look forward to! In Seoul this is clearly marked in English but, elsewhere, you have to look for the magic number "64" on the hangul signs. The same sites which charged for parking also tried to renege on the "Free for oldies" offer even though it was clearly marked in hangul (sometimes even in English!), claiming that it was "only for Koreans" even though it didn't say so - this was a battle which we won on only around 50% of the occasions (Haeinsa and Naganeupseong). Hahoe even had a supplementary charge for foreigners (3000 v 1000 won) – now one expects this in Africa or India but not in a country with the 8th highest median family (UK is 19th) and 15th highest per capita income (UK is 11th) in the World!!! .
g. We spent 51000 Won on Tolls (c £39) with 2 quite long stretches (Suncheon - Busan and Cheongju - Seoul) but the short stretches "add up". The system is the same as is used widely around the World with 2 types of lane – for those with electronic charging equipment and those with cash. Our Rent-a-car instructions were clear – avoid the Blue Hi Pass "electronic" lane. This we did religiously but ran into another problem – the cash lane unmanned machine wasn't issuing tickets when we entered, and we didn't therefore have one to hand in to the booth when departing!!! We pressed the machine's communication button to find out why but this only offered a clerk speaking Korean and, with irate cars piling up behind us, someone came out and just motioned us to continue! We survived this for a while, explaining where we had joined and paying cash, but eventually discovered that our car did indeed have a hi-pass device as part of the windscreen mirror and that this had accidentally got switched on!! Lesson – try to get EVERYTHING about the car explained when you pick it up!!!! Unfortunately the rent-a-car clerks had very little English. A similar issue arose regarding the grade of fuel. I had asked the clerk what type of car we had and had been told "Diesel". Luckily petrol is rarely self serve in Korea and the pumps only show fuel type in hangul anyway so we always had to ask. On the first occasion it turned out that the car actually took "Gasoline" and it didn't seem that there were different size dispensers to prevent a mistake. Really Lotte/Hertz didn't do a very good job and should have all this clearly identified for renters! They are just not used to renting to foreigners. On which point – make sure that you set the pick up point as "home" or a "favourite" on your sat nav to ease finding the return location.
h. Fuel was around European prices (1500 Won p l +/-) and we spent 167000 won to cover the 1600 kms = c £126. With the 6 day hire at £251 (booked via a non Korean agency and better than was on offer directly) and the tolls at £39 this gave a total cost across the 6 day rental and 1600 kms of £416 = £208 per pax. This was more than we would spend in Europe for the same duration and distance but we were still very happy with the cost benefit ratio of car hire
i. Add in Av hotel cost of £39 B+B pn across 10 nights ((including 5 in Seoul!) and the ENTIRE trip from UK home door and back with UK parking and flights etc cost under £1000 p pax giving both a cost per day and a cost per WHS of £97 – and a few TWHS "in the bank" for possible future "ticks"!!

Author winterkjm
#232 | Posted: 23 Mar 2017 22:32 | Edited by: winterkjm 
S Korea (T)WHS by Rent-a-Car

Thanks so much for this. I am leaning toward driving in Korea during my next visit, though I expect it won't be for another couple years. I can read hangul enough to at least pronounce the word(s) and know most place names, which will inevitably help with the signage. Your experience heartens me. In fact, I would have far less potential challenges simply because I would not need to rent a car. From your description its a relief that I can just borrow a vehicle.

On another note, I am very curious about a couple sites you visited along your journey:

Kiln Sites (Gangjin) - worth visiting? particularly with little to no expectation of inscription?
Dinosaur Footprint Site (Haenam) - I understand they have a museum, how was the site and museum itself?
Pilam Seowon - as a community we've visited Byeongsan, Donam, Dosan, Pilam, and Sosu Seowon.
Gaya Tumuli of Gimhae - Haman (2 components) - what do these sites add in comparison to Daegaya Tumuli?

Could I persuade you to at least review Gaya Tumuli of Gimhae - Haman TWHS, since you visited all locations? I only visited Daegaya Tumuli in Goryeong. Despite the fact, all Gaya sites will be combined as a serial nomination in a similar manner to Baekje and Gyeongju, it could be useful to have more information about the various Gaya components.

Korean (T)WHS have been well reviewed on this site and I won't be describing our individual visits unless I feel I have something specific to add

No Reviews
Gaya Tumuli of Gimhae - Haman
Kangjingun Kiln Sites

1/5 Reviewed Components
Sites of fossilized dinosaurs throughout the Southern seacoast

Author meltwaterfalls
#233 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 09:30 
Thanks for this Solivagant, it is always useful to have these practical tips available, even if they are not of immediate use personally.

I think next time I'm in Korea a hire car will probably feature in my planning to be able to quickly tick off a few (T)WHS that I missed last time around. Though I must admit, I prefer the travelling experience of using public transport. I'm not sure why, it can be frustrating at times, but I don't know if I ever feel more happy or comfortable than sitting on a train in a foreign country. Though I've regularly hired cars recently to enable me to get a quantity of sites that I wouldn't otherwise have been able to achieve.

I hope you enjoyed Korea, and I hope the food was to your and Mrs Solivagant's liking.

Author nfmungard
#234 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 09:49 

So now knowing all sites, how do you rank them personally?

Author clyde
#235 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 12:01 
I plan to rent a car to cover more ground at leisure on Jeju Island but I might also go for a rental car to visit Suncheon from Busan (instead of 4hrs each way by train at uncomfortable hours).

In Suncheon, I want to visit the Wetland Reserve (formerly known as Ecopark) which is quite straightforward with nearby parking spaces as well as the Seonamsa Mountain Temple, which seems to be more of a hassle to get to (especially without a rental car).

I'd like to visit both sites as a long day trip from Busan. Any useful info to share, Solivagant?

Author Solivagant
#236 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 13:45 | Edited by: Solivagant 
So now knowing all sites, how do you rank them personally?

I will need longer to think about that! We only have one Korean WHS in our Community top 200 (Changdeokgung ) and none at all in the "popular vote" and I wouldn't disagree - Korea is something of a "niche" destination and this is reflected in its WHS - one doesn't really go there for "Iconic" or "World class" WHS. Perhaps it is better to look at the (T)WHS series as a "collection", none of which by themselves would you go out of your way to visit but which, taken as a "group", provide a nice introduction to and summary of "Korea" when you are there and want to get a handle on the country and its history.
the 2 sets together cover the gamut of South Korean regions and historical periods/cultures from dinosuars through dolmen, petroglyphs, bronze age and through the centuries through to reasonably modern Joseon. There are however a lot of tombs and fortifications closely followed by monasteries and palaces and all are a bit difficult to differentiate/evaluate within the categories. A lot of the tombs etc provide very little in the way of "wow" factor, but their contents, visible in the adjacent museums, are very fine indeed - so, how does one evaluate them as WHS? Would you want to see just the contents in the Museum without seeing the, admittedly relatively unexciting, tombs from which they came? We hadn't visited Hahoe before and found it a good example of a village with vernacular architecture when comparing it with other vernacular inscriptions Worldwide. I also came to appreciate Jongmyo more than before by pairing it with its intangible aspects.

I'd like to visit both sites as a long day trip from Busan. Any useful info to share, Solivagant?

I have to say that we found the Suncheon Wetland Reserve a big disappointment (very "commercialised", controlled and busy) and wish that we had stopped at one of the other Wetland sites further West - which we had passed close to - but it was a busy day. We are genuinely quite interested in birds (and had even taken our Swarovski bins and, indeed, used them to see the massed cranes from which the public, not unreasonably, were kept well away!) but the immediate conditions at Suncheon are not conducive to "real" birdwatching - I could see much better at Saltholme close to my home. . But, if you wish to "tick off" Tidal Flats from Busan then you have no other choice really. We didn't go into Busan as we cut off north after Gimhae but the highway from there to Suncheon is certainly fast (but also busy with heavy lorries etc -the area is very industrialised) and you could think of 2 hours each way which would certainly allow enough time for the 2 T List sites. Hiring a car for 1 day only has its downsides and difficulties which you will have to evaluate - getting and handing back a car takes time in itself. Maybe you are happy to treat "personal hires" the same as "business" ones - where one doesn't care too much about being there to fully "close" the contract etc - leave it in the car park, dump the keys in the box and make for the airport check in!. I used to have hire cars when I worked but always feel a "personal hire" needs far more time and care in checking scratches, contract details etc etc! Having a car would save you a lot of time getting out to your 2 T List sites and, timewise should be "doable" between Expressway journeys to and from Suncheon in a full day

Author clyde
#237 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 15:34 | Edited by: clyde 
Thank you very much for the very valuable tips and suggestions.

I'm keen on birdwatching but I want to visit Suncheon mostly because of the 'roundish tidal flats phenomenon' not the birds. That said, April should boost up the number of bird species at the tidal flats so I'll still be quite happy with any birdlife I get to see.

Since I always treat my rentals as 'personal hires', in Busan I'm trying to arrange a 24hr rental through my hotel with delivery at reception the evening before to be able to drive to Suncheon first thing in the morning and have breakfast there (unless they don't offer a reasonably priced private chaffeur service).

What about Seonamsa Temple? Have you been? Is it easy to find and how far is it from the wetland reserve?

Author Solivagant
#238 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 16:31 
What about Seonamsa Temple?

No we didn't see that one - see my route spreadsheet linked to above. We visited Magoksa much further north.

You might be interested in this by the way as to why you can't use Google maps to show driving distances in S Korea - this was a real pain when doing our planning before we went -it only shows times and distances for trains!! - ctions-in-south-korea

Mapquest is an alternative - I wouldn't use it for other countries but with S Korea "needs must". It shows the Ecopark to Seonamsa Parking Lot as being 35.6kms and taking 28 minutes. As you have to cross Suncheon I would have allowed a bit more.

By the way - you could probably take in Naganeupseong between the Tidal Flats and Seonamsa. Try to get Mapquest to tell you the route and how long!!!

Author winterkjm
#239 | Posted: 24 Mar 2017 16:50 | Edited by: winterkjm 
Perhaps it is better to look at the (T)WHS series as a "collection", none of which by themselves would you go out of your way to visit but which, taken as a "group", provide a nice introduction to and summary of "Korea" when you are there and want to get a handle on the country and its history.
the 2 sets together cover the gamut of South Korean regions and historical periods/cultures from dinosaurs through dolmen, petroglyphs, bronze age and though the centuries through to reasonably modern Joseon. There are however a lot of tombs and fortifications closely followed by monasteries and palaces and all are a bit difficult to differentiate/evaluate within the categories.

I think Solivigant's explanation here is fairly accurate. You do not go to Korea for sites like Machu Picchu, the Pyramids, or the Taj Mahal. Korea offers a rich history, but there is a certain "niche" aspect to Korea's cultural destinations. Speaking for myself, I've found Korea's history and culture particularly interesting, but others find it bland, too uniform, or inaccessible.

Korea's cultural WHS & TWHS can be categorized into 7 exclusive groups:

Fortifications (4) Hwaesong, Namhansanseong, Ancient Mountain Fortresses, Seoul City Wall
Buddhism (4) Haeinsa, Seokguram & Bulguksa, Traditional Buddhist Mountain Temples, Unjusa
Tombs (3) Royal Joseon, Daegaya Tumuli, Gaya Tumuli
Dynastic Capitals (3) Gyeongju, Baekje, Changdeokgung
Clan/Traditional Villages (3) Hahoe & Yangdong, Naganeupseong, Oeam
Confucianism (2) Jongmyo, Seowon
Prehistoric Korea (2) Dolmen Sites, Daegokcheon Stream Petroglyphs
*The Dynastic Capitals are primarily fortifications, tombs, and palace sites

Only 2 sites do not categorically fall into these groups
- Salterns (2010)
- Kangjingun Kiln Sites (1994)

The Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea is certainly considering additional tentative nominations that would broaden Korean heritage. For example, Cultural Landscapes, Christianity, and examples of Modern Heritage Sites.

Author winterkjm
#240 | Posted: 26 Mar 2017 13:09 | Edited by: winterkjm 
(Article Jan 2017) - "30 Nominations Aiming for Korea's Tentative List"

In my summary, I borrowed Ian's ranking system (Site/Experience). I listed 8 candidates that I visited amongst the 30+ aspiring nominations. From what I can gather all 8 are active and have sent nomination dossiers to CHA and consulted with experts, symposiums have been held, and there is certainly organizations that support their candidacy. This however does not guarantee their place on Korea's tentative list. I expect some of these nominations to be included between April 2017 - July 2018, which broadly seems to be the current window for potential additions to Korea's tentative list.

Uirimji Resevoir (Article Feb 2017) Site 2: Experience 4

Ganghwa Island Marine Heritage Sites (Article Jan 2017) Site 3: Experience 3

Busan Provisional Capital and Refugee Trail (Article Dec 2016) Site 4: Experience 6

Christian Heritage and Martyr Sites of Korea (Article Dec 2016) Site 4: Experience 6

Bukhansan Fortress [Extension] (Article Jun 2016) Site 3: Experience 4

Ruins of the Hanseong-Baekje [Extension] (Article Feb 2016) Site 3: Experience 4

Confucian Royal Academy & Shrines of Seoul [Transnational] (Article Sep 2016) Site 4: Experience 6

Japanese Colonial Period Prisons - Seodaemun [Transnational]
(Article Oct 2015) Site 4: Experience 4

Traditional Nomination Themes (4)
Fortifications (2)
Tombs (1)
Confucianism (1)

New Approach Nominations (4)
Modern Heritage (3)
Samhan Period Reservoir (1)
*Extension and Transnational nominations are a potential first for Korean heritage

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