Chichen Itza
Gebel Berkal

World Heritage Site

for World Heritage Travellers

Cultural Inscriptions rejected as Cultural Landscapes

WHS which were nominated as Cultural Landscapes and which were inscribed under Cultural Criteria but where the proposal that they be considered a "Cultural Landscape" was not accepted by the WHC. The "advanced search" on the UNESCO Web site under "Cultural Landscape" is taken as the definitive "proof" that UNESCO regards a site as a CL.

The connection belongs to World Heritage Process connections.

Connected Sites

  • Al Ain
  • Ani: Ani was originally nominated as a cultural landscape, but in a revision dated February 2016, Ani was put forward as an archaeological site by Turkey (ICOMOS regarded "that the comparative analysis is insufficient to demonstrate that the property is an outstanding example of a cultural landscape" AB ev)
  • Beemster Polder: created as in ideal landscape
  • Butrint
  • Derwent Valley Mills: "The cultural landscape of the Derwent valley is of outstanding significance because it was here that the modern factory system was established, to accommodate the new technology for spinning cotton developed by Richard Arkwright. The insertion of industrial establishments into a rural landscape necessitated the construction of housing for the workers in the mills, and the resulting settlements created an exceptional industrial landscape that has retained its qualities over two centuries"(AB)
  • Falun Great Copper Mountain: "It is justifiable to assert, therefore, that the Great Copper Mountain and its associated cultural landscape around Falun is exceptional as being one of the most enduring and complete monuments of the world's industrial heritage" (ICOMOS assessment in AB eval)
  • Ferrara
  • Laponian Area
  • Las Medulas
  • Lenggong Valley: Nominated as relict CL
  • Palmeral of Elche: The Palm Grove may also be considered to conform with the continuing organic cultural landscape (AB ev)
  • Rock Islands: Nominated as a relict cultural landscape (AB ev)
  • Tsodilo: "Tsodilo should be considered as a cultural landscape because it is well qualified in this category of cultural site. It qualifies primarily under category iii, "an associative cultural landscape" with "powerful religious, artistic, and cultural associations of the natural element." It is also an organically evolved landscape, falling into the sub-category of "continuing landscape." The Operational Guidelines require the retention of "an active social role in contemporary society closely associated with the traditional way of life and in which the evolutionary process is still in progress," which closely defines Tsodilo. The presence of Tsodilo among the emerging group of cultural landscapes on the World Heritage List would both grace that group and help clarify its nature." (AB)
  • Upper Svaneti: It should also be considered to be a cultural landscape (AB ev)
  • Villa d'Este: "It is also a cultural landscape" (AB) and Fowler "Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy, inscribed but not recognized as the category 1 cultural landscape which it clearly is;" Page 23 Link
  • Wadi Rum


Do you know of another WHS we could connect to Cultural Inscriptions rejected as Cultural Landscapes?

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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source