Chichen Itza
Gebel Berkal

World Heritage Site

for World Heritage Travellers

Associative Cultural Landscape

Category of cultural landscape, defined by Unesco as "justifiable by virtue of the powerful religious, artistic or cultural associations of the natural element rather than material cultural evidence, which may be insignificant or even absent".

The connection belongs to World Heritage Process connections.

Connected Sites

  • Ambohimanga
  • Ancient Nara: The Kasuga-Taisha Compound and the Kasugayama Primeval Forest (AB ev)
  • Bali Subak system: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: The ceremonies associated with the temples and their role in the practical management of water together crystallise the ideas of the Tri Hita Karana philosophy that promotes the harmonious relationship between the realms of the spirit, the human world and nature. (AB ev)
  • Bassari Country: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: exceptional, tangible witness to the intertwined complex of practices, social rules, rites and beliefs that have helped the Bassari regulate the interaction between men and their living environment (AB ev)
  • Chief Roi Mata's Domain: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: continuing association of the landscape with the oral traditions of Roi Mata, continuity of chiefly systems of authority and customary respect for the tangible remains of his life evident in the continuing tabu prohibitions on these places (AB ev)
  • Grand Pré: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: Its memorial constructions form the centre of the symbolic re-appropriation of the land of their origins by the Acadians, in the 20th century, in a spirit of peace and cultural sharing with the English-speaking community. (AB ev)
  • Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: As per PJ Fowler, World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992-2002
  • Khangchendzonga National Park
  • Kii Mountain Range: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: reflect a persistent and extraordinarily well-documented tradition of sacred mountains over the past 1200 years (AB ev)
  • Koutammakou
  • Le Morne
  • Lushan National Park: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: the model for the popularization of Song and Ming Dynasty Confucian idealist philosophy and the model of academy-based education (AB ev)
  • Matobo Hills: "What gives Matobo its continuing relevance to local communities today is the strong persistence of indigenous beliefs and practices associated with Matobo as a sacred place - the seat of God, (Mwari/Mwali), the home of ancestral spirits, and the focus for rituals and ceremonies linked to rain, harvest, disease and appeasement of spirits. Overall the landscape has a strong aesthetic quality - the natural phenomena give the place a dramatic 'natural beauty'. From strategic points on the hills there are far reaching views over the surrounding landscape. It is easy to see why so many people have imbued this landscape with a special meaning." (AB).
  • Mijikenda Kaya Forests: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: As a collection of sites spread over a large area, they are associated with beliefs of local and national significance, and possibly regional significance (AB ev)
  • Mount Wutai: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: fusion between the natural landscape and Buddhist culture, religious belief in the natural landscape and Chinese philosophical thinking on the harmony between man and nature (AB ev)
  • Nord-Pas de Calais Mining Basin: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: They are testimony to the dissemination of the ideals of worker unionism and socialism. (AB ev)
  • Osun-Osogbo
  • Papahanaumokuakea: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: living traditions of the Hawaiians (AB ev)
  • Persian Garden: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: The Persian Garden is also the principal source of inspiration for the Persian carpet and textile design, miniature painting, music, architectural ornaments, etc (AB ev)
  • Qadisha Valley: As per PJ Fowler, World Heritage Cultural Landscapes 1992-2002
  • Rio de Janeiro: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: images of Rio, which show the bay, Sugar Loaf and the statue of Christ have had a high worldwide recognition factor, since the middle of the 19th century (AB ev)
  • Sacri Monti of Piedmont and Lombardy
  • Sukur
  • Sulaiman-Too: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: vivid evidence for strong traditions of mountain worship which have spanned several millennia and been absorbed successfully by Islam (AB ev)
  • Taputapuātea: Taputapuātea is a remarkable Polynesian associative cultural landscape. (AB ev)
  • Thingvellir: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: strong association of the Althing to mediaeval Germanic/Norse governance, known through the 12th century Icelandic sagas (AB ev)
  • Tongariro National Park
  • Uluru: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: The dramatic monoliths of Uluru and Kata Tjuta form an integral part of the traditional belief system of one of the oldest human societies in the world. (AB ev)
  • Val d'Orcia: Cultural Landscape & criterion vi: Images of the Val d'Orcia, and particularly depictions of landscapes where people are depicted as living in harmony with nature, have come to be seen as icons of the Renaissance and have profoundly influenced the development of landscape thinking (AB ev)
  • Vat Phou
  • West Lake
  • ǂKhomani Cultural Landscape


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A connection should:

  1. Not be "self evident"
  2. Link at least 3 different sites
  3. Not duplicate or merely subdivide the "Category" assignment already identified on this site.
  4. Add some knowledge or insight (whether significant or trivial!) about WHS for the users of this site
  5. Be explained, with reference to a source